English history until 1603 – war of roses, hundred years war
The Hundred years war (1337 – 1453)
The 14th century was quite difficult for England. In 1348 there was an epidemic of plague (Black Death).
It reduced the population by 1/3. Edward III was the king and he thought that he had the right to be on the French throne, because his mother was a French princess. He was fighting Joan of Arc and her followers for more than 100 years. England won some battles, but the French were stronger and they won.
This war was very devastating for England. It resulted in economical problems.
9. The War of the Roses (1455 – 1485)
The end of the Hundred years war wasn’t the real end of problems. The throne was free, so two noble families started to struggle for the possession of the throne. They started in 1455. The families were called York and Lancaster and both had roses in their emblem (white and red). They ended when the last York, Richard III was killed in the battle on the Bosworth field. Henry VII united the two rival houses by marrying Eliz of York. So this established the Tudor dynasty.
There were two important rulers in the Tudor’s dynasty. The first one was Henry VIII, the son of Henry VII, and then his daughter Elizabeth I. The period of the Tudor reign is called the Renaissance.