Varieties of English
· English Language is the chief medium of communication of people in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and numerous other countries, among the biggest and probably most important is India (it was a British colony until 1949). It is the official language of many nations in the Commonwealth of Nations and is widely understood and used in all of them. It is spoken in more parts of the world than any other language and by more people (420 million speak it all over the world) than any other tongue except Chinese.
· English as a first language is the one that children learn as their first and is also the official in the country; second language know most of the people in the country and is official too (English as a second language is learned in many countries to understand foreigners, when the first language is not very spread among foreign people); and English as a foreign language is the one we learn to know an international language, is not official in the state and it depends to each country how many people learn it
· we know 5 types of English – British, Indian, African, American and Australian
· English that is learned in schools is called Standard English (SE), but people on the top of the social scale (about 3%) speak with Received Pronounciation (RP)
· The most distinguishing differences between American English and British English are in pronunciation and vocabulary. There are slighter differences in spelling, pitch, and stress as well. It is often difficult to determine whether a work was written in England, the United States, or any other part of the English-speaking world.
· in American English there are series of spelling reforms (-er instead of British -re, -or to replace-our, check instead of cheque) and sometimes Americans use different words for the same thing that British (bug, to mean insects in general rather than bedbug in Great Britain, corn, to designate what the British call maize, elevator X lift, truck X lorry, windshield X windscreen, sidewalk X pavment, commercial X advertisment)
· English is the main language of science (especially computer science, medicine) and after the WWII. English became the main language of diplomacy