§ Similar to nouns, can have similar function
§ Highly heterogeneous word class where the individual members differ in forms, functions and ways they refer to
§ Pronomen = standing instead of noun
Different functions of pronouns:
Substitute for a noun-phrase (nominal group)
Who lent you the book? Who represents the noun-phrase
What are you eating? I am eating an apple.
Somebody has taken my umbrella. Somebody refers to a person who has taken an umbrella
Refer to an entity, which is given in the linguistic or situational context
My friend Peter is not coming. He is ill. linguistic context
Pronouns don’t refer to one entity like nouns but to different entities
Substitute for the head of a noun-phrase in the linguistic unit
I need some envelopes. Have you got any large white ones?
The appearance of brick is better than that of other building materials.
Stand for a general concept
Everyone should speak at least two foreign languages. (all people)
Everything is as it should be. (all things involved in particular situation)
One never knows. (a man)
Express semantic and syntactic relationship
Our teacher (relationship between teacher and group of people)
The book which I am reading.
Some pronouns are coreferential (=identical) with the subject of the clause
The children enjoyed themselves. (children and themselves are the same entity)
Some pronouns reinforce the entity referred to by a noun or pronoun
He himself wrote it. emphasizing he and anyone else
He wrote it himself. Without help of anybody else
Determiners in the noun-phrase (nominal group)
That green plant definite determination
Some new ideas indefinite determination
My uncle definite determination + semantic relationship
Diectic (they point to entity in space or time)
That is the key I was looking for.
Who is walking around in the attic? It’s father looking for some old books.
Used for both objects and persons