· major Cold War confrontation between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) over Soviet-supplied missile installations in Cuba, regarded by many as the world’s closest approach to nuclear war
· after Castro’s revolution on Cuba, Eisenhower’s administrative anulled diplomatic relations with Cuba in 1960, because Cuba abused American soldiers on ambassys, took over American property and supported guerrilas in Latin America
· on April 17, 1962, a group of Cuban refugees, trained and equiped in USA, landed on the Cuban coast, in the Bay of Pigs; Castro’s soldiers were waiting for them and 2,000 Cuban refugees were captured or killed by 20,000 Castro’s army
· in October USA had leaerned that Soviet Union had begun missile shipment and spy planes overflying Cuba had photographed Soviet-managed construction work by August 29; and the first ballistic missile was spotted on October 14.
· after a week of secret consultation with his advisers, during which options of invasion, air strikes, blockade, or diplomacy were discussed, on October 22 US President John F. Kennedy announced his intention of placing a naval blockade around Cuba to prevent the arrival of more missiles.
· Kennedy demanded that the Soviet Union dismantle and remove the weapons, declaring that US naval forces would intercept and inspect ships bound for Cuba to determine whether they were carrying missiles.
· Soviet vessels en route for Cuba turned away to avoid the quarantined zone, while communication between Khrushchev and Kennedy was opened through diplomatic channels. After several days of negotiations during which nuclear war was feared by many to be a possibility, Khrushchev agreed, on October 28, to dismantle the missile sites and return the weapons to the Soviet Union, offering the United States on-site inspection in return for a guarantee not to invade Cuba
· Kennedy halted the blockade and also secretly promised to withdraw US missiles recently stationed in its NATO partner Turkey