History of Britain
By 700 BC came the first tribes of Celctic speaking people. But they were exterminated by Romas about AD 43. In the beginning of 5th century, the Barbarian´s attacks of Roman epmire caused theire leaving England.
Early middle ages
It the 5th centrury came the first Aglo-Saxons tribes (Angles, Saxons, Jutes). They started to populate inland of Britain and Heptarchy was estabilished. Vikings came in 8th century and they got a part of land called Danelaw. In 1066 William of Normandy was crowned as a British king after he had defeated Harlod at Hastings.
When John the Lackland became king, he was very unpopular among the nobles and church. They united against him and forced John to sign Magna Carta in 1215 at Runnymede. King promised all freemen protection from his officers.
Hundred years war
In 1337 Edward III declared war on France because he wanted the French crown. At the beginning England was more successful and got some teritories in Britain thanks to Treathy of Brétigny. But in the end of the war, in 1453, England lost everything.
The War of Roses
After the war the nobles divided themself on those who supported Lancastrians (red rose) and on those who supported Yorkists (white rose). The duke of York got the throne but he died. There was agian a battle of throne in which Edward IV won.
After Henry VII´s death there was a male heir but too young to reign. So Mary I became queen. And after she died her sister Elizabeth I was crowned. Noone expected her to be successful ruler, but she was.
In 1534 Henry VIII made himself Supreme head of the Church after he had quarreled with Pope over his divorce. His new Church was called Protestant. But Mary I wanted people to be Catholic again and she persecuted Protestans so she was called the Bloody Mary. Her sister Elizabeth brought the middle way.
In 1603 James I became the first Stuart on English throne. His successor Charles I had some problems with parliament over money and religion. He tried to reign alone. This led to the Civil War from 1642 to 1646, where Caveliers fought for king against Roundheads (for parliament). Roundheads finaly won and Charles was executed. For next 11 years Britain was republic called Commonwealth. At that time Oliver Cromwell ruled Britain as Lord Protector. When he died James II came to reign. This is called the Restoration of the king. Finaly James had to escaped and parliament asked William and Mary to reign together as constitutional monarchs.
In 18th century many of workers, known as Luddites, were replaced by machines so they started to rebel. They wanted better work conditions and wages.
Queen Victoria ruled Britain for over 50 years. There were several reforms during her reign, which were demanded in People´s Charter, like elections for men over 21 years, women could keep some property, working hours were cut down and children stopped working in factories and mines.
In 1914 the WW I started between Austria-Hungary and Serbia. The United States entered the war in 1917 when they declared war on Germany. In the end of war, Germany agreed to an armistice in 1918.
After the war the south part of Irelad became Irish Free State.
WW II started by Hitler´s ividing Polland in 1939, so Britain declared war on him. During the winter in 1940 London was bombed, this is called the Blitz. After the WW II England became more social – Welfare State.
In 1973 entered Britain the European Economic Community.
By 1991 Britain took part in war in Persian Gulf.