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The structure of the prepositional group / phrase (PrepG

- Preposition can never stand alone ® obligatory combinations with other words
- Exocentric = the head is always preposition (x endocentric = modifiers and quantifiers are optional)
§ can be preceded by optional modifier
§ can be followed by obligatory completive (obligatory because preposition can’t stand alone)
straight along this road
just at the moment
quite near here
only by studying hard

Realizations: nominal group
adjectival group (in private)
adverbial group (for ever)
prepositional group (except inhere)
finite wh- clauses (Have you decided about where you are leaving?)
non-finite wh- clauses (Have you any problems apart from where to stay?)
non-finite -ing clauses (by studying hard)

Cannot by completive: finite that clause (He was surprised at that she noticed him.)
Þ leave out the preposition
Þ change the structure (at her noticing him)
to- infinitive clause (He was surprised at to see her.)
Þ leave out the preposition
Þ change to- to –ing (at seeing her)
subjective form of pronoun (He was surprised at she.)
Þ objective case of pronoun (at her)

Semantically can represent grading (Put the picture more to the left.)
intensification (completely out of focus, entirely beyond comprehension)
attenuation makes the meaning less intense
(partly without understanding)
quantification (20 miles from here, 20 years after his death)
focusing (mainly under the impression)
Occasionally intensification modifier can be at the end

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